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Colitis is the term used to described inflammation of the colon There are a variety of causes of colitis including infections, poor blood supply, and autoimmune reactions.
The colon (large bowel or large intestine) is responsible for collecting and storing the waste products of digestion. It is a long muscular tube that pushes undigested food towards the anusfor eventual elimination as a bowel movement. As the liquid mixture of undigested food makes its journey, it mixes with mucus and normal bacteria residing in the colon. As well, water is reabsorbed into the bloodstream, and the feces start to solidify.
The colon is located in theabdominal cavity and is divided into the following parts: the cecum, the ascending colon, the transverse, the descending colon, the sigmoid, therectum, and the anus. The right colon includes the cecum and ascending colon. The left colon includes the transverse segment to the sigmoid.

The wall of the colon has numerous layers. There is a smooth muscle layer that wraps the outside and is responsible for squeezing the undigested food through the length of the colon. The inner layers, or mucosa, come into contact with the fluid and allow water and electrolyte absorption to help solidify the feces. The mucosal layer is where the colon inflammation occurs and is responsible for the symptoms of colitis.
As with any other organ, the colon has a blood supply with arteries delivering oxygen rich blood and nutrients to it, and veins that drain carbon dioxide and lactic acid from it.

Colitis Causes:

Inflammation of the colon can be caused by a variety of illnesses and infections. Some of the most common causes are discussed below.
Infectious Colitis:
Viruses and bacteria can cause colon infections. Most are food-borne illnesses or "food poisoning." Common bacterial causes include ShigellaE.ColiSalmo